In mid 2006, this site hosted an experimental survey investigating the relationship between cigarette health warnings and psychological reactance (the tendency for people to rebel against being told how to behave).

The results of the study were published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & Steed, L. G. (2011). Graphic cigarette warnings and psychological reactance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 219-237.  Link to article here.

To view the specific warnings used in the study, click on the links below.

Text-only Warning Condition Stimuli  -  Front 1  *  Back 1  *  Side  *  Front 2  *  Back 2

Graphic Warning Condition Stimuli  -  Front 1  *  Back 1  *  Side  *  Front 2  *  Back 2

Any questions about this study should be directed to david dot erceg-hurn at grs dot uwa dot edu dot au


Examples of Cigarette Warnings

Text Warnings ......................................................................................... Graphic Warnings

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Last updated February 2011